Technology There is no specific technology needed to complete this program of distance education. 5. Tilmans, F. van Vree, & J. Language: Reading books as well as report-writing in a different languages other that is not English should be requested (and accepted BIU) BIU) before enrolment in any distance-learning program. 6. Winter (Eds. )"Performing the Past. Discrimination: There isn’t any discrimination based on race or color, gender, religious beliefs or practices. 7. The Memory of History as well as Identity within Europe (pp. 35-50). Age: Review the requirements for admission to every distance education degree program.
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. More details. Assmann, J. (1995).
Duration Time Ancient History Online via distance learning. Collective Memory and Cultural Identity. For a course of 21 credit hours, the expected duration will be 21 weeks. New German Critique , (65), 125-133. For 45 credits the estimated time to completion is 45 weeks and so on. Austin, J. (1962).
Calculations are estimates. How to do Things using Words . The duration of every distance-learning degree program is determined based on the average time spent instruction each week. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
It is also based on the amount of valid credits derived from prior knowledge and the degree of dedication to the program. Berger, S., Donovan, M., & Passmore, K. (Eds.). (1999). More details. The Writing of National History Western Europe Since 1800 . The information for the degree programs for distance learning is available in English However, you can after approval and request submit your required assignments in other languages. London: Routledge. Recognition Recognition Ancient History Online via distance learning.
Berger, S., & Lorenz, C. (Eds.). (2008). Recognition – Distance degree programs – More info. The Contested Nation. Accreditation is a Distance Learning University – More information. Religion, Class, Ethnicity and gender in national Histories . Graduation legalization and Graduate Service – More information. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
The acceptance for these Distance Learning Higher Education academic credits is the sole prerogative of the institution receiving them or employer. Blaas, P. The criteria for recognition differ based on the specific educational institution or policy of the company, or the legal framework of the country. B. M. (1978). The Cultural and Historical Activity Theory. Anachronism and Continuity. Activity Theory, also known as Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, holds that every human activity could be described or studied and that all activities are governed by an order, take place in certain circumstances and may be assisted by certain tools instruments, tools, or artifacts and serve an objective. The development of the Constitution and Parliament in Whig Historiography and in the anti-Whig Reaction in the period between 1890 and 1930 . The study of Activity Theory focuses on the use and purposeful utilization by people.
The Hague, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff. Activity Theory, human activities are the focus of research (Kaptelinin and Nardi (2006)) and the purposeful usage of tools or artifacts that people use to perform tasks is the main focus of the study. Bryld, C. (1991). Activity theory is focused on the understanding of the connection between activity and consciousness (Nardi, 1996).
Fra Historieskrivningens Historie til Historiekulturens Historie? Ideas for an Udvidelse of the Historiografiske Begreb (From to the History of Historiography to the History of Historical Culture? Ideas for the broadening to Historiography as a Concept of Historiography]. This implies that consciousness and activities are not distinct from each other however, they are interdependent. In Ch.
Activity is a deliberate act, while consciousness is the process of carrying out of these activities within an environment of social interaction (McAvinia, 2016). Kvium (Ed. ), Historien og Historikerne I Norden Efter 1965. As stated by Nardi (1996), "you are what you do." Artifacts are tools used by humans to complete tasks. Oplaeg Fra Den 21. They can also help improve specific to a particular culture, like the language.
Nordiske Fagkonference I Historisk Metodelaere. Since humans are who they are and tools are the tools that influence what people do , according to the theory of activity, objects like the computer have the status of "crucial facilitators for human experiences" (McAvinia 2016.). Aland 27-31 May 1989. Activity Theory’s goal is to explain the relationship between objects or tools, the other people and the conditions under which the purposeful act can be carried out to reach an desired outcome or goal.
History and historians from Scandinavia following 1965. Activity Theory is a concept that was first developed within Marxist philosophy (Wertsch, 1981) as well as the research of Soviet psychologists of the 20s and 30s. The proceedings from the 21st Nordic Conference on the Methodology of History. The people who developed the theory, including A. Aland, May 27-31st, 1989[PDF] (pp.
83-102). N. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag. Leont’ev and Lev Vygotsky, believed that psychoanalysis and behaviorism were not adequate psychological approaches and drew on Marx’s critique of the social theory.
Cappelletto, F. (2003). Luria and Leont’ev have proposed the concept of artifact-mediated , object-oriented actions (CRADLE 2011,) which rejects the notion that behavior respond to stimuli (McAvinia 2016,). Lang-term memory of extreme events: From autobiography to the Age of History essay. In the view of Vygotsky learning is social and children are taught to comprehend the world through interaction with it as well as the making of artifacts. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 9 (2), 241-260. In the context of action and consciousness Vygotsky (1978) claimed that the creation and use of and construction of artifacts is a key part of the human development process, and by engaging in activities which stimulate mind, it is possible to develop.
Confino, A. (2006). First Generation Activity Theory. Germany as an a culture of Remembrance: Promises and the Limits in Writing History . Theory of Activity, first proposed by Vygotsky It is founded on three main principlesthat can be described as three nodes. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Human beings utilize tools to reach an objective. Cornelissen, C., Brandt, S., Klinkhammer, L., & Schwentker, W. (2003).
The objective is the driving force for the action The activity is guided by some or all of the artifacts, which could also be described as instruments, tools, or technologies. Erinnerungskulturen: Deutschland, Italien und Japan seit 1945 . The process of a person working towards a goal using an artifact produces an end result. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch. The outcome could be exact or distinct from the object and even unintended or unrequested. Dalhuisen, L., Toebes, J., & Verhagen, D. (1982). Second Generation Activity Theory. Geschiedenis op school.
Leont’ev expanded Vygotsky’s theory of activity theory to incorporate the socially mediated nature activities and the role of other participants within the activity into consideration. The Deel: Grondslagen [History at School. Leont’ev argued that activities require the sharing of work between people. Part I: Foundations[History at School. However, Vygotsky described activity as an something that is directed through signs and cultural tools (Engestrom and Miettinen, 1999′ McAvinia, 2016), Part I: Foundations . The definition of Leont’ev was extended to include how the action relates to the person’s role within the community.
Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff. The Leontyev version of activity theory included several different nodes: the person the mediating artifact or object, the community, object rules, as well as the distribution of the work. Dean, D., Meerzon, Y., & Prince, K. (Eds.). (2015).